Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book.

It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, as opposed to using ‘Content here, content here’, making it look like readable English.

Many desktop publishing packages and web page editors now use Lorem Ipsum as their default model text, and a search for ‘lorem ipsum’ will uncover many web sites still in their infancy. Various versions have evolved over the years, sometimes by accident, sometimes on purpose (injected humour and the like).

There are many variations of passages of Lorem Ipsum available, but the majority have suffered alteration in some form, by injected humour, or randomised words which don’t look even slightly believable.

If you are going to use a passage of Lorem Ipsum, you need to be sure there isn’t anything embarrassing hidden in the middle of text. All the Lorem Ipsum generators on the Internet tend to repeat predefined chunks as necessary, making this the first true generator on the Internet.

It uses a dictionary of over 200 Latin words, combined with a handful of model sentence structures, to generate Lorem Ipsum which looks reasonable. The generated Lorem Ipsum is therefore always free from repetition, injected humour, or non-characteristic words etc.

The standard chunk of Lorem Ipsum used since the 1500s is reproduced below for those interested. Sections 1.10.32 and 1.10.33 from “de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum” by Cicero are also reproduced in their exact original form, accompanied by English versions from the 1914 translation by H. Rackham.

Simple OFF delay timer circuit using IC 555

As you may know, there are three types of timer circuits: ON delay timer, OFF delay timer and the PERIODIC timer. Here is the circuit of OFF delay timer using IC 555.

Circuit diagram

The IC 555 used as monostable multivibrator can be used to produce OFF delay to operate any load.


When supply is connected to the circuit keeping the push-to-on switch in OFF condition, the output of the IC remains LOW and the circuit remains in this state, until you press the switch Sw1. Also the timing capacitor C1 remains discharged through pin-7.

When the switch is pressed, pin-2 is momentarily grounded and the internal trigger comparator triggers the flip-flop inside the IC and thus the output at pin-3 becomes HIGH. The relay is ACTIVATED and so the load connected to its n/o contacts is switched ON.

Now the capacitor C1 starts charging through timing resistor R1. When its voltage is slightly greater than 2/3 of Vcc, the internal threshold comparator triggers and the flip-flop inside the IC is SET. So the output at pin-3 becomes LOW. Due to this, the relay is DEACTIVATED and the load turns OFF.

When the output of the IC becomes LOW, at that instant the capacitor C1 quickly discharges into pin-7 directly and the circuit waits for the next timing cycle. Whenever, the switch is pressed again, the same process repeats to turn on the load for a predetermined time.

The time for which the load will remain ON can be calculated with the help of simple formula:

T = 1.1.R1.C1

where, T is in seconds, R1 is in ohms and C1 is in Farad

For more information about internal structure of IC 555, refer this popular article.

Important points to note

  • The resistor R2 is used to pull up pin-2 to positive potential. This avoids accidental triggering of the circuit.
  • The capacitor C2 across pin-5 and ground absorbs external noise and avoids abrupt change in time length when the switch is pressed.

Possible modifications

With the given values of R1 = 1M and C1 = 100uF, the circuit will have a time period of about 110sec. However, you can change the time period as per your requirement.


Can be used to control the bathroom lights or store room lights which we generally forget to switch OFF. This circuit will ensure automatic switch off of these lights avoiding wastage of electricity.

Practical circuit of touch timer using IC 555

It is an interesting application of IC 555. The trigger pin-2 of the IC is sensitive to human touch. This property is used in the circuit.

Circuit diagram

Practical circuit of touch timer using IC555


In this circuit when supply is connected, the output of the IC remains LOW and the relay remains deactivated. The timing capacitor C1 remains discharged into pin-7 of the IC, ready to receive the trigger pulse. Remember that, this condition of the circuit is also known as STABLE STATE of the circuit.

But when the touch plate TP is momentarily touched with your naked finger, (without any gloves, etc.), the internal trigger comparator triggers the internal flip-flop of the IC and now the output of the IC becomes HIGH. Due to this, the relay is ACTIVATED.

In this condition, the capacitor C1 starts charging through upper resistor R1 (it is timing resistor R1, 500k – not drawn due to mistake while drawing the circuit). The voltage across the capacitor starts building up. When it becomes slightly greater than 2/3 of supply voltage, the internal threshold comparator SETs the internal flip flop of the IC and now its output becomes LOW.

Now the relay is DEACTIVATED and the circuit remains silent till next time you touch the TP. The state of the circuit during which the capacitor charges and the relay activates is called as QUASI-STABLE STATE.

Important points to note

    • DUS means DIODE UNIVERSAL SILICON. It means that you can use any type of silicon diode at the place shown as DUS.
    • The length of the wire connected between pin-2 and the touch plate TP should be as small as possible. Practically I tested the circuit with wire length of just 3 inches.
    • The coil resistance of the relay should be greater than or equal to 100Ω since the output current of the IC should not exceed 200mA, if you use upto 18V supply voltage for the circuit.
To understand the details of the IC, refer the specifications of IC 555. Click here to read complete details of IC555.
  • You can use the relay to control a small load running on mains supply through its N/O contact.
  • You can also adjust the timing cycle of the circuit by changing the values of R1 and C1 depending on your requirement.
  • The capacitor C2 is used to absorb the noise that pin-5 may pickup during normal working of the circuit.

Possible modifications

If you use a pull-up resistor of 10k between pin-2 and positive supply line of the circuit, then you can use the circuit with same application without having the problem of short length of the wire connected to TP.

In this modification, you will have to use a small push-to-on type trigger switch between pin-2 and ground line of the circuit. So whenever, it is pressed, same action will be done, as you touch the TP.


  • You can use the circuit for controlling any load with the help of just a touch.
  • It is also useful as fencing alarm in an architectural model of a bungalow or a building, such that if anyone touches the metal fencing wire of the model bungalow, the the alarm will sound.
  • Useful in other applications of touch alarms, if an external alarm circuit is also used at the output of the IC.
  • The circuit is very much suitable for demonstrating experiment on IC 555 working and showing its property of converting sine wave into its proportional square wave.